Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the most influential and important figures in U.S history. He believed that all people should be created equal regardless of the color of their skin. He was a minister and was an important leader and activist in the Civil Rights Movement. Find out more information below:
Who was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.?
He was born Michael King Jr. on January 15th, 1929 in Atlanta Georgia. His father Michael King was a pastor of Ebenezer Baptist church. His mother was Alberta Christine Williams King. She has attended Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute today known as Hampton University and earned a teaching certificate. Alberta Christine Williams King’s father Reverend Adam Daniel Williams was a preacher at Ebenezer Baptist Church.
Michael King Jr. was the middle child. His older sister’s name was Christine and his younger brother’s name was Alfred Daniel.
In 1934 Michael King and Michael King Jr. changed their names to Martin Luther after German Protestant leader Martin Luther.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a very smart little boy. His mother was a teacher and taught him how to read before he entered school. He tried attending school at the age of five but was told to come back at the age of six.
Martin Luther King Jr. attended David T Howard Elementary School and then Booker T. Washington High School.
Martin Luther King Jr. skipped the 9th and 12th grades and entered college at the age of 15. Martin Luther King Jr. first attended Morehouse College located in Atlanta Georgia. He graduated and received a Bachelor’s Degree in Sociology. Martin Luther King Jr. then went to Crozer Theological Seminary located in Chester Pennsylvania. At Crozer, he received a degree in Divinity (religious studies). In 1951 Martin Luther King Jr. went to Boston University. In 1955 he graduated from Boston University with a Ph.D. in Systematic Theology and earned the title of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott meet each other while attending school in Boston. They started dating in 1952 and got married in 1953. Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King had four children: Yolanda, Martin Luther King III, Dexter, and Bernice. Dexter became a pastor at Dexter Ave Baptist Church in Montgomery Alabama.
How Did Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Help in the Civil Rights Movement?
Martin Luther King Jr. wanted everyone to be created equal. He felt that it was wrong to be judged by the color of your skin.
Before the Civil Rights movement, African Americans were not treated equally to white people. They were not allowed to use the same public restrooms, use the same entrance/exits at places such as the movie theater, use the same swimming pools, or sit in the same part of a restaurant that white people were sitting in.
Martin Luther King Jr. felt that it was wrong to judge people by the color of their skin. He believed that people should be judged on their character and not how they looked.
He felt that something had to change in this country and everyone needed to be treated the same.
What Actions did Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Take?
Martin Luther King Jr. was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
In 1955 he took leadership of the Montgomery Bus Boycott where Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat and moving to the back of the bus for a white man.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted a year and on November 13th, 1956 the supreme court declared segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
In 1957 along with other civil rights activists Martin Luther King Jr. founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to organize and conduct non-violent protests for civil rights.
Martin Luther King Jr. with other civil rights activists will go on to lead many non-violent protests for civil rights around the country.
In February 1959 Martin Luther King Jr. traveled to India to study Mahatma Gandhi’s principles of non-violence.
Gandhi’s principles of peaceful resistance had a lasting impression on Martin Luther King Jr., he used them in his fight against racial discrimination.
June 23rd, 1963 Martin Luther King Jr. lead a Freedom Walk in Detroit Michigan, 125,000 took part in the walk.
On August 28th, 1963 at a historic march in Washington DC for jobs, freedom, racial equality and the end of discrimination Martin Luther King delivered his “I have a dream” speech.
October 14th, 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. became the youngest man (age 35) to receive a Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through non-violence.
November 27, 1967, Martin Luther King announces the Poor People Campaign focusing on jobs and freedom for the poor of all races.
Martin Luther King Jr. also protested against the Vietnam war.
Martin Luther King Jr. was very passionate about his beliefs in equal rights for all people. He arrested many times during his peaceful protests for civil rights.
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4th, 1968 on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis Tennessee. He was only 39 years old. He was in Tennessee to lead a peaceful march to support local sanitation workers.
When Did Martin Luther King Jr. Day become a Holiday?
On November 2nd, 1983 President Ronald Reagan signed a bill to declare Martin Luther King Jr. Day in remembrance of all the great things he did to fight for civil rights.
He was the first African American to be granted a national holiday. Martin Luther King Jr. Day is celebrated on the third Monday in January. Martin Luther King Jr day is celebrated in January in honor of his birthday.
Martin Luther King Day was first celebrated on January 20th, 1986.
All 50 states did not recognize Martin Luther King Jr. Day at a paid day off holiday until 2000.
Utah was the last state to declare Martin Luther King Jr. a holiday
Over 1,000 streets are named after Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4th, 1968. One year later on July 21th 1969, Martin Luther King Jr’s brother Alfred Daniel Williams died by accidental drowning in a pool. Alberta Christine Williams King (Martin Luther King Jr.’s mom) was murdered at the Ebenezer Baptist church just six years after the assassination of her son. Mrs. King was shot and killed during morning service while she was playing the organ. This was the church she grew up attending. She was murdered on June 30th, 1974 by then, 23-year-old Marcus Wayne Chenault who felt that Christians were his enemy. Marcuse Wayne Chenault later said that he was going to shoot Martin Luther King Sr. however, Mrs. King was closer.
Martin Luther King Jr. Quotes
“If you can’t fly then run if you can’t run then walk if you can’t walk then crawl, but whatever you do keep moving forward.”
“Only in the darkness can you see the stars.”
“Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.”
“Intelligence plus character-that is the goal of true education.”
“Forgiveness is not an occasional act, it is a constant attitude.”
“A man who won’t die for something is not fit to live.”
“Faith is taking the first step even when you don’t see the whole staircase.”
“I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear.”
“The quality, not the longevity of one’s life is what is important.”
“Peace is not merely a distant goal that we seek, but a means by which we arrive at that goal.”
“We must use time creatively.”
“Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.”
“Love is the only force capable of transforming an enemy into a friend.”
“Nonviolence means avoiding not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him.”
“A riot is the language of the unheard.”
“We must accept finite disappointment, but never lose infinite hope.”
“A lie cannot live.”
“Whenever men and women straighten their backs up they are going somewhere because a man can’t ride your back unless it is bent.”
“Courage faces fear and thereby masters it.”
“If we do an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, we will be a blind and toothless nation.”
“No person has the right to rain on your dreams.”
“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.”
“Free at last, Free at last, thank god almighty we are free at last.”
Assassinate (past tense assassinated): to murder a political or religious figure
Civil Rights Movement: A mass protest that took place in the late 1950s through the 1960s African Americans fought to end discrimination and receive the same equal rights and have access to the same opportunities as white citizens.
Gandhi: Mahatma Gandhi or Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a spiritual and political activist who lead the national movement against British rule in India.
Ph.D.: Doctor of Philosophy or doctoral degree. A doctoral degree is earned after 8 years of college. 2 years of college is an associates degree, 4 years is a bachelor’s degree, 6 years is a Master’s Degree, 8 years is a Doctoral Degree or Ph.D